This is an evolving reading and resource list about the art, technology, culture, and history of cyberspace.    Although virtual reality, as most people understand the term, remains primarily in the realm of military and information simulation, we are beginning to see elements of this new technology evident in the popular culture of mass media including computer games, movies, music, and television.    The subject has been explored for decades, however, in fiction, critical theory, and art, laying a groundwork for the evolution of a new medium to form out of the existing communication age.

People have the tools now to build cyberspace.    There are many possibilities. The term "cyberspace" was coined by William Gibson, one of the baseline authors of the cyberpunk genre of science fiction. His trilogy, including the novels "Neuromancer," "Count Zero," and "Mona Lisa Overdrive," are great works that offer action, mystery, and interesting characters whose reality includes detailed, networked, 3D digital spaces.

Please send me your suggestions for other works or resources on these subjects.    I would appreciate it.  Enjoy.

Robert Rothfarb


William Gibson


Count Zero

Mona Lisa Overdrive

Virtual Light


Burning Chrome

The Difference Engine
(with Bruce Sterling)

Pattern Recognition

Spook Country
Bruce Sterling


The Difference Engine
(with William Gibson
Neal Stephenson

Snow Crash

The Diamond Age
Vernor Vinge

True Names
Culture, History, and Critical Theory

Cyberspace: First Steps
Michael Benedikt, editor

Constance Penley
and Andrew Ross, editors

Computers as Theatre
Brenda Laurel

Silicon Mirage:
The Art and Science
of Virtual Reality
Steve Aukstakalnis
and David Blatner

Virtual Worlds:
A Journey in Hype
and Hyperreality
Benjamin Woolley

Virtual Reality
Howard Rheingold

Resisting the Virtual Life:
The Culture and Politics
of Information
James Brook and
Iain A. Boal, editors

Synthetic Worlds:
The Business and Culture
of Online Games
Edward Castronova

Avatars! Exploring
and Building
Virtual Worlds on
the Internet
Bruce Damer
Production: Creating Digital Space

Second Life: The Official Guide
Michael Rymaszewski,
Wagner James Au,
Mark Wallace,
Catherine Winters,
Cory Ondrejka,
Benjamin Batstone-Cunningham,
Philip Rosedale

Creating Your World:
The Official Guide to
Advanced Content Creation
for Second Life
Aimee Weber,
Kimberly Rufer-Bach,
Richard Platel

The VRML 2.0 Handbook:
Building Moving Worlds
on the Web
Jed Hartman, Josie Wernecke

VRML 2.0 Sourcebook
Andrea L. Ames,
David R. Nadeau,
and John L. Moreland

Designing Digital Space:
An Architect's Guide
to Virtual Reality
Daniela Bertol


Extending Laws into Digital Space

Cyberspace and the Law: Your Rights and Duties in the On-Line World
   Edward A. Cavazos and Gavino Morin
   MIT Press

Organizations (Technology, Culture, History, Community, Policy)

Web3D Consortium

The Contact Consortium


Electronic Frontier Foundation

Commercial Virtual Reality & Web3D Information and Services

Web3D forum on

VirtuWorlds 3D E-Zine and Virtual Worlds Portal

CyberEdge Information Services (publishers of the CyberEdge Journal and VR industry studies)